The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration (1985), 14.1: 33-62

Sewn boats of the North: A preliminary catalogue with introductory comments. Part 1

Christer Westerdahl

University of Umea, Department of Archaeology, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden

 

 

Area

This catalogue comprises finds of wooden sewn boats and bark boats in Northern Europe, including Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Estonia. Unfortunately, the White Sea area of the Soviet Union (Carelia and the Kola peninsula) could not be embraced by me, although it is of great interest in this connection. It also seems that the coasts, estuaries and inland waterways of the Southern Baltic may be of importance to the subject. It is to be hoped that future comprehensive catalogues of finds from these two areas will broaden considerably the primary material for boat archaeology and ethnology in the North.

Concepts

The term 'sewn' boats is not quite accurate. As pointed out by Dr Detlev Ellmers at the Deutsches Schinahrtsmuseum in Bremerhaven, GFR, it gives the impression of a textile technique where the holes in the material are made during the process of sewing itself. Of course, the penetrations in wood have to be drilled or bored in advance of the sewing. Ellmers instead suggests the term 'laced' boats (German:

geschnurte Boote) which would indeed easily and lucidly be translated into most languages.

However, the term sewn (wooden) boats is fairly well entrenched and I feel that this is not the place to discuss and/or to replace it. Such a proposition would even have repercussions in the field of boat type genesis and interpretation. In this case a replacement of the term would serve as an important means to distinguish conclusively between sewn hide boats, which by definition of the traditional kind are sewn in an approximately textile (e.g. sail cloth) manner and the laced or lashed wooden boats.

Although I personally feel this would be quite appropriate, there is certainly more to it than this: e.g. the search for proper terms and concepts for the whole process and a consensus on other important interpretative issues.

When it comes to details in recent sewn boats, 1 will try to put forward further a few suggestions for international terms in languages where these details are well-known, e.g. Finnish nide (Swedish näst) for the Mekrijärvi type of

 

 

Figure 1. The principal stitch types of Finland: A. running along the whole edge of the plank, B. groups of shorter running stitches, C. the nide/näst type of Mekrijärvi (Finland No. 15) or Keuru (No. 9) (from Forssell, 1983).

 

 

 

Figure 2. The simple 'lashed' sewing, Finnish nide of Fig. 1C. type, Keuru No. 9 (after Korhonen, 1982a; redrawn from Hirsjärvi, 1937).

Figure 3. The plank-and-caulking arrangement of the Skeppargatan boat, Sweden No. 42 (Cederlund, 1978).

simple stitch or lashing (Forssell, 1982: 1983:

Korhonen, 1982a and Figs 1, 2, 3) and Estonian toros for a caulking lath held with iron clamps (Rank, 1935; Cederlund, 1978; and Fig. 3). as combined with the sewn boat complex.

Definitions

My subject is boats with sewn (laced) planking, where the strakes are fastened to each other in overlapping clinker fashion.

The catalogue therefore does not include boat finds with just their ribs lashed to cleats in the planking, if this does not happen to coincide with sewing between the strakes, as in fact is often the case. Lashing or sewing has also been included when they occur as repair work.

The genetic connection between these lash/ lace elements is partly unclear. There may be an aspect of lashing strake to rib worth considering, which is the possible original reluctance to pierce the wood of a log boat; this then being the immediate ancestor of a lashed/sewn wooden plank boat. It has to be noted, however, that holes were often drilled in log boats to check the thickness of the wood during the process of hollowing out the log.

Even when the wooden boat side is made up by different strakes in a small boat. there may have been a related precautionary mechanism operating to avoid clefts in the central part of the plank, if pierced with a treenail. Although treenails may be known earlier in other carpentry than boatbuilding, they do not seem to enter the maritime trades of the North until they fix the sewing, possibly eventually replacing it completely. Alternatively, sewing may have been immediately succeeded by iron nails. I will return to this later on.

In the next stage they seem to replace the lashings between planks and ribs. Anyway, the normal development of fastenings between strakes and ribs in the North always included cleats being cut out in the plank wood itself, in rare cases being loose, for the lashing holes. The cleats occur in pairs or single (later stage?) for each rib (Figs 4, 5, 6) with four cleats!). This kind of fastening has survived alongside sewing up to the last three centuries in certain isolated areas. Fig 6, No 15 Mekrijärvi, possibly 18th century, is from Finland. It is interesting to note that the same kind of cleat system is already in use in the sewn/lashed Bronze Age North Ferriby and Brigg boats of England, although no ribs exist, just bottom beams which pierce all the cleats.

Later, the cleats seem to pervade Scandinavian boatbuilding until bigger craft [e.g. Sutton Hoo,

 

Figure 4. Cleats in two planks of the Halsney boat (Norway No. 5) with a sewn cleft to the left (Brøgger et al., 1917).

Figure 5. Lashing cleat of the Halsney boat (Brøgger et al., 1917).

 

Figure6. Cross-section of the Mekrijärvi boat, Finland No. 15 (Forssell, 1983). Key: Andra (bordvarvet) = second strake; Botten/kolplanka = bottom/keel plank; Forsta (bordvarvet) = first strake; Loskol= false keel;

Nat = seam (joint); Rottaga = root fibre; Spant = rib: Utsparad klack = cleat in the keel plank.

 

Gredstedbro, 7th century] and the specialized cargo ships (e.g. Skuldelev I, III, 10th century) demand stronger fastenings. This is only one of the all-encompassing characteristics of the different traditions of the North, where the common basis seems to be the Scandinavian Iron Age tradition.

Another characteristic of this kind is the Scandinavian rib types, which actually has only one serious rival in the area, i.e. the bulkhead like ribs of the Saami tradition.

This common basis will not be stressed for each find in the catalogue, only deviations from the rule.

Background

The work has been carried on intermittently since about 1979. The idea came up already in 1975, when I participated in the first advanced academic course of maritime archaeology in Sweden at the University of Stockholm. The result of the documentation exercise on a sewn boat, Sweden No. 42, Skeppargatan, has been described by Cederlund (1977; 1978). It was then certainly not expected that a total of more than 130 finds could be recorded.

My survey of oral reports and place names in 1975-1979 along the Swedish side of the Gulf of Bothnia (Westerdahl 1980) and another extensive survey of the inland areas of Northern Sweden produced new information finds. I then began to realize the extent of the material, although precious little had been salvaged. Not even one near-to complete boat find had ever been recovered. The written sources were furthermore split up in small notes in a huge mass of works, which was indeed time-consuming to look through.

However, the important position of the North in a European context is principally expressed by the extensive survivals of material and social culture. To cultural researchers in general the area is still, to some extent, fresh and tangible.

Aims

The main aims of this catalogue are therefore:

(1) to demonstrate the extent of the existing material;

(2) to stress the importance of the survival areas and their oral traditions.

(3) to supply an exhaustive list of written sources;

(4) to make some general analytical comments;

(5) to outline a few lines for future study and research.

This manuscript was practically finished in the spring of 1983, but was then totally lost, along with all its base material, in a fire. Since then it has, however, been completely rewritten and brought up to date.

In the meantime Henry Forssell's publication on the sewn boats of Finland (Forssell, 1983) has been the single most important contribution to the subject at hand. Per Smed Philipsen (1983) has contributed a few Danish log boat finds which apparently display traces of having been sewn or lashed, either for repair or for a washstrake.

Unequal representation

The totals in the catalogue are not all of the same value. Only the Swedish material contains both the oral reports and the finds, which have been documented to some degree. 

If only the substantiated finds were counted the Swedish total would be far smaller, i.e. reduced from c. 75 instances to a mere 15. Finland then stands out as the superior find area in this respect:

Reports

Finds

Total

Norway

1

13

14

Sweden

60

15

75

Finland

--

30

30

Denmark

--

11

11

Estonia

--

2

2

 

Oral material, particularly in a survival area, is of immense interest to establish links between the ethnographical and archaeological approaches. It is to be noted that the linguistic and oral material has helped to outline a preliminary contact area between rather recent (18th-19th centuries) sewn and treenailed boats in Northern Sweden. Without it the distribution maps of the finds (Figs 7, 8)111 would be highly misleading. I have, however, not accounted separately for the oral reports. My view is that their source value is as high as the substantiated finds, especially considering the state of documentation of the latter. The oral material

 

Figure 7. Map of finds or reports of finds of sewn boats in Northern Europe, except the northern part of the Soviet Union.

 

 

Figure 8. The distribution of finds or reports of finds of sewn boats in Northern Sweden (Lappland) with numbers according to the catalogue. Triangular symbols indicate finds of sewn/lashed Laplander's sledges, of which the survey is limited.

 

has been supplied by interviews, evenly distributed over Swedish Lappland, mostly by itinerant scholars. Material is still trickling in.

It seems therefore that the general representation within this area is fairly good. However, some resident local historians with long experience have been able to collect a surprising number of reports on unknown finds from smaller restricted areas (cf. Sweden Nos 21c. 33b). I am convinced that if such an intensive search were to be carried out anywhere in the other already 'hot' areas, the result would be about the same. As these surveys at present are, as I pointed out, extremely restricted, they would, if separately listed, distort the picture. The general distribution maps (Figs 7, 8) are anyway not affected.

I am also convinced that the same kind of oral material could also with success be collected in other places e.g. Finland.

It seems that quite a few of these statements could be used to locate fairly complete boat finds, a work which is one of the steps currently undertaken by some Northern Swedish museums.

Acknowledgements

1 have drawn upon many sources. Many people have contributed personally. I want to thank' in particular the following:

Messrs Harry Alopaeus. then at the Sjohistoriska museet, Helsinki, Finland, Beat Arnold at the Musee d'archeologie, Neuchatel, Switzerland, Carl Olof Cederlund at Statens sjohistoriska museum, Stockholm, Sweden, Arne Emil Christensen Jr at Universitetets Oldsaksamling, Oslo, Norway, Ole Crumlin Pedersen at Skibshistorisk laboratorium/ Vikingeskibshallen, Roskilde, Denmark, Detlev Ellmers at the Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum, Bremerhaven, GFR, Henry Forssell at the Sjohistoriska museet, Helsinki, Finland, Seth Jansson at Skelleftea museum, Sweden, Aimo Kehusmaa at Pohjoispohjanmaan museo, Oulu, Finland, Bengt Schonback, County Antiquarian, Visby, Einar Wallquist of Silvermuseet, Arjeplog, Sweden and Herbert Wigenstam of the Nordarkeologi project, Arvidsjaur, Sweden.

Besides, I have to thank some institutions for consistent helpfulness even including the retaking of copies in great quantities after the total loss of material in July, 1983, particularly the ULMA ethnological archives of Uppsala, Sweden, the Nordiska museet and Statens sjohistoriska museum, Stockholm and, finally, the library of Ornskoldsvik.

Last but not least, I have to thank Olavi Korhonen, then at the DAUM ethnological and linguistical archives in Umea, Sweden, now Professor of the Saami language at the University of Umea, for making the collections of the archives accessible by his personal efforts and continually giving good advice and new ideas. As things are, only a small portion of it has found its way into this work, but Korhonen will undoubtedly follow up his own research on boat terms and cultural affinities in the North, both Scandinavian, Finnish, Saami and Slavonic.

Written sources

As I have stated above, the mention, study and comments on sewn boats are mostly concealed in small notes incorporated in works of wider scope. For this reason the rather uncommon procedure of pointing out the pages of current interest for each work has been followed in the list of references.

However, it also seems appropriate to summarise the references, preliminarily sorted under each nation and, to some extent, subject, respectively.

Catalogues

Among existing catalogues of boat finds I have mainly consulted the following: Ellmers (1972), Forssell (1983), Muller-Wille (1970), Philipsen (1983) and Shetelig (1929).

Comparative material

In the international literature outside my own area I have, to put this work in perspective, used only a few sources. For the Mediterranean area, Basch (1981), Casson (1963: 1971), Pomey (1981) and for Yugoslavia, Brusic (1968), Milliner (1892) and Vrsalovic (1974). The rising interest in the sewn boat complex in connection with different Mediterranean boatbuilding traditions, and modes of construction in early Rome was pointed out by Basch (1981) in a most interesting study.

In the Indian Ocean sewn boats have been considered in many works, in Casson (1971),

 

but especially by Greenhill (1971), Hourani (1963), Marco Polo (1299), Severin (1982)— also published in a recent book which, however, has not been consulted by me).

Some African material is to be found in Pitot & Daget (1948) and Chittick (1980), who also deals with the Indian Ocean. There is also an interesting survival in Mozambique, which hitherto has been little noticed, in connection with the location of the last trading city (to the south) of the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea (c. AD 95-130) whose name Rhapta was supposed to derive from a sewn boat type (courtesy of Mr Per Inge Lindquist of the Swedish archaeological team in Maputo, Mozambique).

The extremely interesting Bronze Age British North Ferriby and Brigg boats have been published in monographs by Wright (1976) and McGrail (1981). For the treenailing of British boat finds I found some mention in Green (1968) the Ashby Dell find and Fenwick (1978) on the Graveney boat. Boat building traditions with treenails may have some genetic connection with sewn boats, as the treenails were used as wedges or stoppers for the stitches. For reasons of source criticism, the distribution of treenailed boats is of great value in connection with boat graves where all wood has perished and no iron rust exists.

Sweden

Notes on the prehistoric as well as historic periods can be found in such works as Arbman (1940), Arwidsson (1942), Broadbent (1982). Cederlund (1977; 1978), Ekman (1954). Eskerod (1956), Granlund (1947), Hansen & Skamby (1981), Hildebrand (1879), Holmbäck & Wessen (1979), Humbla & v. Post (1937), Humbla (1950), Jansson (1979), Lindquist (1924), Lindquist (1983), Løken (1976), Olaus Magnus (1555), Nordewall (1832), Schlyter (1837), Stenberger (1956; 1964), Wenner (1938), Westerdahl (1975-76; 1979; 1980; 1981; 1982a &b, 1983) and Ågren (1971; 1981).

Statements by Olaus Magnus are also the starting point for Ziegler (1532) and a Goes (1540).

Some of these works may also concern Finland since Sweden and Finland were united in one realm from the 12th-13th centuries to 1809. Some are still wider in scope.

In particular the hitherto only European bark boat find of Byslätt (Sweden no 40) has elicited current interest, (Hansen & Skamby Madsen 1981). For comparative purposes the bark coffin material presented by Lorentzsson can be consulted (Lorentzsson, 1984). Other sources are Wenner (1938), for the situation of the finding places, Westerdahl (1979).

The 'root-braided' find, Sweden No 3c Lögdasjön is not without counterparts in local tradition according to Jansson (1979). A local skin boat tale is mentioned by Westerdahl (1983&;s, 65).

Lappland

The sewn boats of Swedish Lappland are treated mostly in shorter comments by Credland (1982; 1984), Drake (1918), von Duben (1873), Ehrenmalm (1743). Eskerod (1956), Fjellstrom (1980), a Goes (1540). Graan (1672), Hammarstedt (1909). Hallström (1910;

commenting on Hammarstedt while describing sewing in use in the Kola peninsula), Hogstrom (1746), Linnaeus (1811). Lundius (1671), Manker (1947; 1953; 1968). Oldeberg (1956), Olofsson (1936—rope material; 1965), Pettersson (1979), Prins (1975), Regnard (1731), Rehn (1671), Schefferus (1673), Tilas (1745), Tornaeus (1671).

For Schefferus (1673) the basis is the separate reports of Graan, Lundius. Rehn and Tornaeus. The only published reports on bark boats are Eskerod (1956) and Westerdahl 1982b, d).

Norwegian Lappland (Finnmark) is treated by Gjessing (1941). Larsen (1934), Malm (1851), Reymert (1976), the Sammlung zur danischen Geschichte (the journey of King Christian IV in 1599 (1773), Stenvik (1980), Sturlason (in the 1220s, describing the 12th century) (1951), Wessel(1902).

Finnish (and Russian) Lappland: see Faerøyvik (1935), Hallström (1910) and Itkonen (1939).

The connection between sewn boats and the Lappland sledges of which some are sewn can be followed by studying Berg (1935), Lomenie de Brienne (1654) (who curiously enough mentions a bark sledge!) and Wahlberg (1956) comment by Manker (1968) who also supplies some linguistic material.

 

Figure 9. Boats being sewn in the inner Finnish area, from a woodcut in Olaus Magnus (1539, 1555).

 

 

Finland

Finnish sewn boats or related subjects, such as trading routes are discussed by Calonius (1929), Dreijer (1969; 1979), Forssell (1981; 1982; 1983;

1984), Hirsjärvi (1937), Högnäs (1983), Itkonen (1926; 1934; 1939; 1942: 1957), Korhonen (1982a, &), Lukkarinen (1917), Manninen (1917, 1957), Naskali (1980), Nikkila (1936; 1946; 1947), Paulahärju (1966), Sirelius (1913;

1919), Valonen (1952). Vilkuna (1967; 1975).

Estonia (n SSR)

Estonian material is found in Past (1946) and

Rank (1935).

Soviet Union

Aleskovskij (1969), Cederlund (1978), Hallström (1910), Itkonen (1939), Levin & Potapov (1961), Manninen (1917), Palmquist (1674), Piper (1710; republished 1902), Zeienin (1927). Russian sewn boats in the Svalbard/Spitsbergen area, a Norwegian dependency, are treated by Carlheim-Gyllensköld (1900) and Westerdahl (1978,1984).

Norway

The principal works on Norwegian sewn boats and related subjects are: Brøgger et al. (1917), Brøgger & Shetelig (1951), Bee (1942), Christensen(1966; 1975; 1977; 1979), Faerøyvik (1934; 1935; 1979), Faerøyvik & Fett (1943), Gjessing (1941), Johansen (1976), Larsen (1934), Løken (1976), Magnus (1981), Malm (1851), Marstrander (1963, 1976), Morcken (1980), Myhre (1980), Nicolaisen (1893), Reymert (1976). Sammlung zur danischen Geschichte (1773), Shetelig (1903; 1916; 1917;

1951), Shetelig & Johannessen (1929), Stenvik (1980), Sturlason (1951), Vorren (1958) and Wessel(1902).

Denmark

The most important Danish works on related subjects are: Andersen (1951), Crumlin Pedersen (1969; 1972; 1984), Engelhardt (1865, 1869), Hansen (1962), Hansen & Skamby Madsen (1981), Kahl (1971), Smed Philipsen (1983), Rasmussen (1953), Rosenberg (1937), Tauber (1966), Troels-Smith (1946) and Åkerlund(1963).

Technical details and materials

Arwidsson (1942, birch bark), Forssell (1982;

1983, sewing techniques), Granlund (1940, wooden storage vessels), Hirsjärvi (1937, sewing techniques), Lorentzsson (1984), Olofsson (1936, rope materials), Prins (1975, typological hypotheses), Valonen (1952, birch bark).

Dating

The most important works on dating are Forssell (1983), Myhre (1980) and Tauber (1966).

General works

I have picked out a few titles of general interest, a rather risky undertaking: Basch (1981), Berg (1935), Cederlund (1978), Christensen (1966),

 

 

Figure 10. The title page of the French translation (1674) of Schefferus Lapponia. A Saami boatbuilder is shown with the sewing thread held in his mouth.

 

 

Crumlin-Pedersen (1972), Ellmers (1972), Eskerod (1956), Forssell (1983), Gjessing (1941), Granlund (1947), Hale (1980), Hailstorm (1910), Hassløf (1972), Hirsjärvi (1937), Korhonen (1982a), Prins (1975), Rosenberg (1937), Shetelig (1917), Sirelius (1913), Wahlberg (1956) and Wright (1976).

Among the older historical sources I would like to point out in particular: Sturlason (1951), Olaus Magnus (1555; republished 1976) (Fig. 9), Schefferus (1673) (Fig. 10), Ehrenmalm (1743), Hogstrom (1746) and Linnaeus (1811; refers to a tour of 1732).

Genesis and survivals

The sewn planked boats of Northern Europe have generally been considered to represent an ancestral stage in the development of clinker-built boats and ships of the Scandinavian type. Their distribution and the linguistic material, such as Germanic boat terms, associated with the sewing, point in that direction (e.g. Sperber, 1912). However, it is not necessary therefore to conclude that this sewing is ultimately derived from sewn hide or skin boats—again a semantic problem with the term 'sewing' as stressed in the introduction. This seemingly obvious connection has been taken as granted by distinguished boat archaeologists, such as Brøgger and Shetelig, Gjessing, Marstrander and Johnstone (1980, on an experimental replica of a rock carving hide boat, built in cooperation with Marstrander). It is on the other hand refuted by yet another eminent Norwegian scholar, Christensen, on the evidence of the Swedish boat ethnologist, Hassløf. Earlier support for log boat origins have been supplied by other Swedes, notably Humbla and Eskerød. The same views prevail in the important contributions of Crumlin-Pedersen (1972) and Hale (1980). It may well be that some kind of interaction between skin and log boat traditions is possible, at least in the North.

There is indeed also an original woodworking tradition strongly associated with sewing/ lashing, which has been treated using ethnological and partly archaeological material in depth by Granlund (1940) (Fig. 11). The development of sewing in boats would rather seem to start with a kind of lashing (cf. North Ferriby), related to nide or the knotted stitch which has nothing to do with textile sewing. The running stitches may be a late development (cf. Hjortspring).

The rope material, earlier for sewing in boats with root fibres, has been lucidly treated in a little known study by Olofsson (1936) (Fig. 12). Other related recent techniques in birch bark, another sewing and caulking material, has been exhaustively dealt with by Valonen (1952). This may also indicate features of another possible ancestral tradition, that of the bark boat, of which we have some records precisely in the Scandinavian area, within as it seems, a long time span (Sweden Nos 1c, 2b, 8b, 28b, 40).

A rather curious variety has not yet been properly judged, the so-called 'root-braided' boat [Sweden No. 3 and Jansson (1979)], if this is not simply a protective arrangement for the

 

 

Figure 11. Sewing techniques in wooden containers, according to Granlund (1940).

 

 

Figure 12. Core areas of rope production from wood fibre in Swedish Lappland in recent times, according to Olofsson (1936). Key, left side:

above—Ropes of root fibres, middle—birch bark, bottom—pine wood; right side; above, Finnish northern implement of spinning;

below, Saami southern implement of spinning.

floor of a sewn boat. Here, I will deliberately pass over the hide boat tales (Westerdahl, 1983&).

The northern boat survivals up to modern times are anyway considered to be relics of a former all-encompassing sewing tradition. The final proof may still be lacking, but as demonstrated in an unpublished thesis by Smed Philipsen (1983), several Danish log boats (Denmark Nos 4-11) already from the Neolithic period (c. 2700-2600 BC to the 4th century AD) display sewing/lashing holes, presumably for extra planking or washstrakes. Traces of such fastenings are also known from Sweden, but as yet both dating and function appear rather hazy.

In the 3rd century BC can be firmly placed the great showpiece of the sewn Scandinavian boats, the Hjortspring find (Denmark No. 1). The last sewn boats in the mainstream would then be the Valderøy (Norway No. 12), AD 245, and Halsney (Norway No. 5), AD 335, boats. An additional intriguing question concerns the Halsnoy find. whose exceptionally high quality caulking material may suggest a ceremonial use for the boat (Magnus, 1981). If so, would it be quite representative for its age?

If, however, we accept its representativity, the transition to iron nails would fit in nicely in the later part of the 4th century. The entirely iron-nailed Nydam ship is firmly dated around AD400. With it, we are already in the making of the great Scandinavian tradition.

Nevertheless, the Northern clinker technique is in no way a pre-requisite for sewing lashing, even in our area. The North Ferriby. Brigg and Hjortspring boats are in fact made of a kind of match-board plank. Hjortspring seems only to be on its way to a clinkered craft, as it is slightly overlapping in the stem/stern sections. In this period sewn planked boats must have existed for a long time. As proposed by Hale (1980), they may make up the bulk of the Bronze Age rock carving boats. The same edge to edge system is furthermore well-known from other sewn planked boat traditions.

The survival of sewn boats alongside developed iron-nailed ones must indeed be due to specialized function and to some extent, lack of material, i.e. iron. These factors must have been felt strongly. In 1935 it was still possible to see a partly sewn and usable boat in Swedish Lappland (Olofsson, 1936). In 1972 a man died in the Arvidsjaur area who knew how to sew a boat (courtesy of Mr H Wigenstam). Apparently it has even later been possible for a Soviet TV team to make a film on the process of sewing a wooden boat (Mr H. Alopacus, Helsinki).

One of the most fundamental sewn boat traditions is associated with that of the aspen dug-out. It was still apparently firmly entrenched in Finland during the last three centuries, when sewing was gradually replaced by iron nails. The subject of aspen log boats, artificially widened or not, has been treated by several authors [Itkonen (1926; 1942), Nikkila (1936; 1946; 1947)—with a most important documentation of the building process];

Korhonen (1982a, b) supplied linguistic comments. The extent of the existing sewn boats with an aspen bottom is surveyed by Forssell (1983).

The tradition of the extended or widened aspen dugout as the backbone of a planked boat is considered in depth by Korhonen (1982&), who shows it to be of Slavonic-Russian origins along with several boat terms in Finnish and Saamish. It entered Finland, according to this theory, during the Viking Age, along with a couple of other cultural features. A parallel and/or older extended dugout tradition in other wooden species, as proposed by Crumlin-Pedersen (1972), is possible but only demon-

 

 

Figure 13. The principal route from Carelia (Lake Ladoga) to the Bay of Bothnia, according to Naskali (1980) with the Koiralampi find (Finland No. 12). Along it were also found the Sotkamo and Valtimo boats (Finland Nos 21-22) and on a subsidiary route the Mekrijärvi (no. 15) boat (Forssell, 1984).

 

 

 

 

Figure 14. The routes between the bay of Bothnia (left) and the White Sea (right) according to Calonius (1929) and Vilkuna (1967). Along them are the Kuhmo (Finland No. 13). Pudasjärvi (No. 17) and possibly the Kiantajärvi (No. 10) finds. Venetie Jaamerelle is the boat route to the Arctic Ocean and the Venetie Laatokalle to Lake Ladoga.

 

 

strable in a few isolated cases. Reference can be made to Crumlin-Pedersen's pending publication on the Slusegärd boats. On the other hand. the waves of cultural influences throughout prehistory may have taken quite another direction. a statement being singularly apt for such a transient material as wood.

Trade routes

The Finnish finds of places with sewn boats could, to some extent, be directly connected with traditional inland trade routes, ultimately to the White Sea or to Lake Ladoga [Figs 13-14, Calonius (1929), Forssell (1984), Lukkarinen (1917), Naskali (1980), Vilkuna (1967)]. It can be assumed that these routes were used in piratical raids as well, as attested by historical sources on Carelian raids into Finland and northward, and implied by the deliberately destroyed Koiralampi (Finland No. 12) and Varkaus (Finland No. 23) boats. Long, low, rowing boats were extremely suitable for surprise attacks in any inland area with extensive water systems.

Light boats

Another tradition is that of the light boat. The light boats without iron were apparently meant to be carried or hauled across isthmuses. For such places, where you had to walk between two waters, all the languages of the North have their particular terms. Some are specific like Finnish vene-heitto, vetto-kannas, malka/muotka, taipale or taival, some less precise Saamish muorka, Nordic ed, eid, bor, drag (hauling place), finally the Russian volok.

This use and handling of boats reflects the fundamental transport problems of the whole of Northern Europe. It is quite conceivable that the light grave boats of Vendel and Valsgärde in Southern Sweden were an answer to the same challenges of nature, although they are rivetted. In the sparsely inhabited and roadless lake and river areas of Finland this tradition has been

 

carried on up to our own days. Countless travellers recount similar passages from Lappland even in the 20th century.

This combination of land and water transport is characteristic of the sub-arctic cultures of the North. Originally, even the winter sledges seem to carry features of two boat types, the log boat and the sewn planked boat. With Sweden No. 21 Soukolojarvi we have presumably a case of a sewn boat turned sledge (Swedish ackja from Finnish ahkio)—cf. Berg (1935), Wahlberg (1956) and Manker (1968).

The use of the late Saami light boats seem to be restricted to river transport, not the least in rapids, according to 18th century sources of which some contain vivid descriptions, e.g. Ehrenmalm (1743), Hogstrom (1746). The Finnish and Carelian survivals, on the other hand, conform more readily to the demands of inland waterways of a calmer character. The boats are also bigger, and narrow in relation to their considerable length.

It has to be noted, however, that it is highly probable that at least the Late Iron Age sewn boats of Northern Norway were all built by Saami boat builders (Gjessing, 1941, with refs). It is possible that they also built boats which agreed better with the then current tradition of their Norwegian customers (Barset, Norway No. 2?). The Saami proficiency in sewn boatbuilding is anyway attested by the famous Icelandic historian Snorri Sturlason, while dealing with the 12th century pretenders to the Norwegian throne. Two 24-oared sewn ships were built for King Sigurd Slembadiaekn, when in the North. Even a poem was composed on the elegant swiftness of the ships. The Sea Saamis of that area are known from the 16th century onwards in written sources to build boats regularly for their Norwegian neighbours,

 

Figure 15. Boat figures on Saami shaman divination drums from the 17th-18th centuries, probably representing offerings but in certain cases perhaps actual vessels (Manker, 1950).

due to their privileged and original position of occupying the inner, forested parts of the fiords, whilst the fishing and herding Norwegians lived off the treeless outer islands. The building of sewn boats ceased completely around 1700 in the southern parts but in Finnmark the tradition was carried on for about two centuries.

It may appear curious for the characteristics of an original inland culture, such as that of the reindeer Saamis, that as Schefferus (1673) stresses, the second 'art' of the males is boatbuilding—the first being hunting. The iconography of the Saami shaman drums also shows a variety of boat representations, which may be an important clue in other interpretative issues, since they must invariably picture sewn boats of bark or wood (Fig. 15; Manker, 1950).

The Saami reindeer hunters or nomads, as well as their partly sedentary hunting and fishing relatives in the woodlands of the interior, later used the smaller sewn boat in fishing and transport. In the later Forest Saami communities birch bark boats are also known to have existed, although not yet found in natures. In those parts of the Scandinavian peninsula where transit communication was most active e.g. the Torne river system up in the very north, the sewn boat tradition may have given way comparatively early to iron-nailed boats, due, at least partly, to easier access to iron. Also, there may not have been such a specialized need for lightness and flexibility. The river system was of a larger scale, with calmer rapids than elsewhere. Throughgoing transport facilities resembled the conditions of the routes through Finland, with their long and narrow rowing boats. This may be the reason for the lack of oral statements on finds of sewn boats in the very north of Sweden (maps Figs 7, 8). The last mention of a sewn boat in the Torne river dates from 1685 (Fjellstrom, 1980) and the only sewn parts were the hood ends. The Saami marginal areas, on the other hand, seem to have kept their survivals, in accordance with the universal laws of cultural progression. This concerns other traits of material and social culture as well. Their distribution would show a nice correspondence with the maps of the sewn boat finds.

The nomadic culture of the Saami people has generally speaking, developed towards a certain independence of outside support and materials. The lightest materials were preferred because of the problems of rapid transportation, following the reindeer herds in a long transhumance-like migration pattern from the mountains to the Gulf of Bothnia, totalling up to 1000 km in one year. What is more, the actual migration may have taken place during a few weeks in spring and in autumn. Implements were light and correspondingly frail, as attested by the boats, but certainly achieving a beauty of their own, a beauty derived mainly from their intense functionality. Winter migration to the Bothnian Gulf had no need for boats. The finds of the mountainous Northwest therefore belong to the summer habitation sites. These finds are relatively few. It very well may be that the transition to iron-nailed boats occurred earlier here compared with the inland areas.

Most of the sewn boat finds of Lappland are found in the woodlands beneath the mountain ranges. The Forest Saamis, direct heirs of the original Saami inland economy, needed these boats for transport in the rivers and fishing in the lakes. In their semi-sedentary life pattern they were in fact more isolated than their mobile nomad counterparts. This is most probably the chief explanation for their firmly sticking to the sewn boats later than anyone else, as attested by a great number of finds and oral statements.

The small sewn boats of the Forest Saamis were extraordinarily frail, according to 18th century voyagers, but both rowers and boats displayed a surprising versatility in rapids and difficult currents. The building of a boat might not take more than a few days, 4 days according to Drake (1912: 73), while 'a couple of hours' [Wahlberg, as quoted by von Duben (1873: 93)] seems a little too optimistic an estimate! A great advantage was their lightness, which permitted them to be carried on the head of a single rower, with his birch bark bailer as a cushion. Some loose bulkhead-like ribs were even carried by the rower's dog, who had been trained to take them in his mouth (Hogstrom, 1746: 112)!

The disappearance of the sewn boats from the southern nuclear-area may have taken place simultaneously with the collapse of the Forest Saami culture. The Forest Saami either went to the mountains to merge with their nomadic relatives or were assimilated into the expanding agrarian culture. This process took place mainly in the closing years of the 18th century. Some isolated Saami enclaves may have carried on for a few decades of the next century. In the northern nuclear area the Forest Saamis lived on up to the present day. It seems that they still used sewn boats during the latter part of the 19th century.

Transition to treenails?

Since the stitches of the sewn boats often, if not always, were wedged by treenails there may be a direct link here with the complete replacement of sewing by treenailing. In the south of Lappland recent oral tradition seems to document the transition within the memory of three to four generations. But iron nails were so quickly available that the treenailed boats are all but forgotten.

In our times the treenailing technique is an integrated part of an extensive boatbuilding culture encircling the Kattegat-Skagerack area; Northern Jutland in Denmark, Southern Norway, Western Sweden. It is also interesting that the treenailed boats were found in the 19th and first part of the 20th century in the Aland islands of the Baltic, and further north in Osterbotten, i.e. mainly the Swedish-speaking

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 16. Sites of treenailed boats and boat graves with no organic material surviving from the Viking Age and the previous century (AD 700 1100). Important places of trade in the southern Baltic area at this time are shown.

coastal communities of Baltic Finland. Thus in the Bothnian area we would expect a possible contact area between sewing and treenailing, especially because of the explicit connection between this area and the occurrence of bigger sewn boats, according to Olaus Magnus (1555). Unfortunately the old practices of this contact area are no longer within living memory. An additional problem is the very slight interest in remains of older working boats among divers and local people in general. This disinterest even extends to research. It seems that we know more about small boats and sea craft from the Viking Age (AD 800-1050) than from the whole period after that. In the critical years between, say 1700-1850 the lack of detailed knowledge is most uncomfortable. As to linguistic parallels it is, however, of great importance that the same indigenous term for treenail, in Swedish trahal ('wooden hole-filler'—häl being derived from hal—hole) is found in both treenailing districts of Scandinavia. Most probably this indicates a common ancestry, maybe ultimately leading to the sewn boat wedges. But the case for it is extremely brittle. This is indeed one of the cases where intimate interdisciplinary links ought to be established, on ethnological, archaeological and linguistic foundations.

The 3rd century Southern Norwegian sewn boat find of Valderöy (Norway No. 12) displays treenails as wedges or stoppers. This may very well have been the case with the 4th century Halsney boat (Norway No. 5). All later boat finds from the area in question are iron-nailed, if not sewn as in the Northern survival cases. The Barset boat (Norway No. 2) in the north has treenails intermittently with sewing (top strake) and iron nails (hull). The use of treenails is furthermore the most important characteristic of the Viking Age and Early Medieval Slavonic boatbuilding practice, distinguishing it from other Scandinavian-based traditions in the area (Crumlin-Pedersen, 1969; Slaski, 1979). The ethnic designation 'Slavonic' seems most appropriate, since treenailing abruptly stops at the Vistulan estuary. In the Baltic area to the east only iron-nailed boats have been found (map Fig. 16)12'.

To conclude, we must confess that there is at present very little, in fact almost nothing, to suggest a connection between sewn boats and treenailed boats.

Grave finds

As to the burial boat finds with obliterated traces of the hull, there is always a great and perhaps insoluble problem. Was there a sewn or a treenailed boat? Iron nails would always survive to be observed. even if totally corroded. This problem of source criticism is to some extent illustrated by the map Fig. 16. It is of current interest when referring to the following finds in the catalogue (cf. the map Fig 7):

Norway No. 6. Kjemngoy, No. 9 Sand, Finland No. 8 Karrböle and Sweden No. 43 Tuna.

It is impossible to judge the relative strength of the two possibilities, even if a certain preponderance in the north points towards sewn boats, in the south towards treenailed boats. Three well-preserved treenailed ships were in fact found in Södertälje near Stockholm in 1799 (Nordewall, 1832). Furthermore. Varenius (1979) thinks that the Bulverket boat of the island of Gotland, was treenailed. In both cases we can assume Viking Age or Early Medieval dating. It is less surprising that such boat details have been found in the neighbourhood of the pirate-infested waters of Falster (Denmark) and Lund (nowadays Sweden). The primary or secondary use of treenails has also been observed in several other boat finds in the area, e.g. the Skuldelev I and the Kalmar I ships. In the west one would refer to the Ashby Dell (Green, 1963) and the Utrecht finds, both possibly from before the Viking Age and the Graveney boat.

Typological stages

It is obvious that the transition from sewn to iron-nailed boats has come gradually in stages. It is, however, by no means an unambiguous process. In the Barset case (Norway No. 2, Early Viking Age), the lower hull is completely iron-nailed whereas the upper strake is intermittently sewn and treenailed. In the Kuhmo find (Finland No. 13), a late example, the opposite order has been followed: lower hull sewn and iron-nailed, the top strake iron-nailed. In the Sand boat (Norway No. 9), iron nails are preserved in the stem/stern section. On the other hand some late Saami boats often are sewn at the hood ends, but otherwise only iron-nailed [Sweden No. 34a-01ofsson (1965), Fjellstrom (1980) quoting Rudbeck (1965)]. It appears that the last details to be sewn or lashed were the rowlocks (e.g. perhaps Sweden No. 8a and a recent find from Kaskeluokt at the Ume river, not entered in the catalogue).

The stages of the sewing itself are to some extent discernible, at least to formulate hypotheses. Prins (1975) has supplied a remarkable hypothetical sequence for the latest transition, thereby totally bypassing the question of treenails:

(1) from lashed {nide) to continuous sewing;

(2) from vertical stitches to slanting ones;

(3) a diminishing of angle from 90: to 45° when penetrating board;

(4) from twice one hole to twice paired holes;

(5) from threading on top of surface to embedded in surface (grooves);

(6) from home-made produce (e.g. roots) to

imported thread (e.g. hemp twine). This process took place in the subarctic region as a late 'efflorescence', according to Prins 'if one stresses the increasing functional effectual-ness attained through growing technological insight or 'involution, if one chooses to stress the fact that sewing was retained long after the superior method of riveting had been made available' (Prins, 1975: 23). Through an analysis of the position of the holes in connected planks Prins poses the following three groups:

a. boats with continuous sewing and paired

holes;

b. those with discontinuous sewing and paired

holes;

c. those having discontinuous sewing and

single holes.

According to Prins 'stage a... not represented in the south, neither has stage c been found in the Arctic, the true north. It is only the final stage, the one of boats clenched with iron rivets which is universally present.' Prins's final 'time-area hypothesis' is formulated as follows:

discontinuous one hole sewing (c) evolved into riveting in the south, whereas in the north it developed into continuous sewing (a) via the intermediate stages of both knotted and full-turn lashing (b), the final stage of the south (rivetting) eventually superseding the final stage of the north (a), through diffusion.

It appears that Prins's theory is somewhat influenced by the thoughts of Gjessing on a particular 'Arctic culture', which others think may be reduced to a cultural fringe. In spite of that the hypotheses put forward could be a useful starting point for further work. It is remarkable, however, in this connection, that no word is ever wasted upon the functions of the sewn boats. Is it quite obvious that rivetting was a 'superior method' in the subarctic context? For instance, why were the sewn boats retained by the Russians in such extreme conditions as the Arctic Ocean, e.g. for their hunting trips to Spitsbergen? Was it only conservatism?

Sewing material

It is most remarkable that very few of the finds have been scientifically analyzed as to their sewing material. The different materials reported are:

birch roots: Sweden No. la Mörtsjön, Sweden No. 1b Dragasjön;

spruce roots: Sweden No. 22 Valkijärvi, Sweden No. 42 Skeppargatan, Finland No. 15 Mekrijärvi, Estonia No. 1 Hara. Estonia No. 2 Narva;

juniper branches: Sweden No. 39 Björke, Finland No. 10 Kiantajärvi:

unspecified root fibres: Sweden No. 27 Orrkammen, Sweden No. 32 Arjeplog, Sweden No. 43 Tuna;

birch bark: Finland No. 20 Siilinjärvi;

bast strings: Norway No. 5 Halsnøy, Norway No. 7 Lauvåsvik;

horse hair: Norway No. 1 Bogan;

cobbler's thread: Sweden No. 5 Ekträsk, Norway No. 8 Pasvik;

hemp twine: Sweden No. 3a Norra Volmsjö (repair), Sweden No. 34a Jiltjaur;

unspecified string: Norway No. 11 Skagen;

reindeer sinews: Finland No. 7 Nellim, Norway No. 13 Øksnes, Norway No. 10 Senja; Sweden No. 23 Stora Sjöfallet, gut string: Norway No. 12 Valderøy.

Caulking material

Examples of caulking material are:

animal hair and tar: Sweden No. 28a Storholmen;

tar-drenched woolen textile: Norway No. 5 Halsnøy;

tarred moss: Finland No. 6 li (Ijo);

tarred moss and birch bark: Finland No. 12 Koiralampi;

resin: Denmark No. 1 Hjortspring.

Figure 17. Sewing technique of the Oksnes (Norway No. 13) boat (Gjessing, 1941).

Traditions

A preliminary ethnic classification of boat building traditions, based upon e.g. sewing techniques, caulking, and tightening arrangements, materials, spacing of ribs may be presented as follows. Only some characteristic features, shown at least in a couple of finds are taken up. The principal activity areas/functions are implied by the finding places and dimensions of the boats. Only confirmed datings, mostly radiocarbon, are admitted.

(1) Scandinavian Iron Age tradition Lightly built boats and ships, with bast or gut strings in running stitches, caulking with tar-drenched animal hair or wool. Spacing between ribs ca, coupled with cleats in pine-wood (oaken) planking. Mainly inshore craft of the Atlantic coast, but also represented in the Baltic area with its inland waterways, 3rd century BC-9th century AD: Denmark No. 1 Hjortspring (ca 300 BC), Norway No. 12 Valderøy (ca AD 250) and No. 5 Halsnøy (ca AD 350), Sweden No. 43 Tuna (8th-9th century AD).

(2) Saami traditions of Northern Scandinavia (a) Sewing with reindeer sinews and root fibres, often in running stitches [for a different knotted stitch cf. Norway No. 13 Oksnes (Fig. 17)], bulkhead-like ribs, sometimes fastened in plank cleats, but fairly early with treenails, almost exclusively spruce planking. Spacing between ribs about half the Scandinavian usage, ca 0-5 m. A few instances of coastal vessels of the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean, with sturdier

Figure 18. Part of the hull of the Skeppargatan boat (Sweden No. 42) seen from the outside. Note that even the ribs are sewn, not lashed to the strakes (Cederlund, 1978).

 

Figure 19. Flank-stitch-wedge system of the Skeppargatan boat, Sweden No. 42 (Cederlund, 1978).

 

 

 

Hull of the Skeppargatan boat (Sweden No, 42) seen from outside. Note the sewing of the strakes and the irregular seams, which indicate the fastenings of the ribs (Cederlund, 1978).

 

 

Figure 21. Sewing of the Hara boat. Estonia No. 1 (Rank. 1935).

 

 

dimensions, otherwise mostly light or extremely light craft for inland water transport, sometimes in rapidly running waters, 9th-19th centuries AD, most finds undated: Sweden No 21 Soukolojarvi (13th century). No. 22 Valkijärvi. No. 28a Storholmen, for the specific rib type. No. 6 Halvträsksjön, No. 7 Lilla Arksjön, No. 18 Tjautjer, Finland No. 4 Haukipudas, No. 7 Inari, No. 14a Laivajärvi, No. 18 Salla, Norway No. 8 Pasvik (recent), No. 13 Øksnes (9th-10th centuries). To these could be added the two examples of the nuora-vene in the National Museum of Finland, Helsinki (not entered in the numbers of the catalogue).

(b) Birch bark boats: Sweden No. 1c Tomasflon, No. 2b Svartberg (8b) and No. 28b Håptjärn.

(3) Finnish tradition

Dug-out bottoms (often aspen, in the Varkaus-Finland No. 23 case proven to be artificially extended) with cleats lashed to the ribs even in historical times, just a very few broad planks, sewing/lashing with the nide (näst) technique of the Mekrijärvi (Finland No. 15) or Keuru (No. 9) type, (Figs 1, 2). Inland waterways with calm waters (13th-19th centuries AD): in addition to Keuru (No. 9 13th-14th centuries) and Mekrijärvi (No. 15, 17th century), Siilinjärvi (No. 20, 18th century) and Virolahti (No 1, undated).

(4) Carelian/Finnish traditions Possibly a local variation of the Finnish tradition, with running stitches in groups, caulking with tar, moss, sometimes birch bark. Calm inland waterways (lOth-19th centuries): Finland No. 14 Laivajärvi (10th century). No. 12 Koiralampi (12th century). No. 21 Sotkamo

Figure 22. Sewing of the Narva boat, Estonia No. 2 (Rank, 1935).

 

(18th century). No. 10 Kiantajärvi (undated),

No. 13 Kuhmo (recent).

(5) Russian/Estonian tradition;

Coarse treatment of wooden surfaces, mostly pine. timbers of considerable dimensions. Everything is sewn, even the strakes to the ribs (Fig. 18) in running stitches in groups (Figs 19-22) with treenail wedges. Caulking with tar- drenched moss and toros laths with iron braces. Coastal vessels of the Gulf of Finland (18th century): Sweden No. 42 Skeppargatan, Estonia No. 1 Hara and No. 2 Narva, both undated.

Outside this classification may be found a possible southern bark boat tradition and a very unclear hide boat tradition in the north.

Some lines for future study and research

(1) scientific analyses of sewing materials and sorts of wood;

(2) collection of oral traditions and statements, particularly in Finland;

(3) location of new and excavation of known sites in diving operations;

(4) radiocarbon datings along with acceptable documentation;

(5) studies of log boats, in this connection to find further evidence of sewing;

(6) interdisciplinary work (linguistics, ethnology and archaeology);

(7) a final synthesis, to put the sewn boat complex(es) in a greater cultural perspective.

 

Notes

[1] On the map (Fig. 7) place names in the province of Vastcrgötland are marked because of its medieval (early 12th century) law, indicating the existence of a presumably sewn boat, the tagbaenda. The shaded area in the inner Bothnian Bay shows a possibly cross-cultural, Saami-Carelian, sewn boat area in the Middle Ages, and possibly somewhat earlier. Its borders are rather indefinite, except in the south, where the dotted lines give the approximate limits of the Swedish-Finnish realm of the 1323 peace treaty with Novgorod Russia. The northern Swedish area, Lappland, is shown in greater detail in Fig. 8 and the numbers refer to the catalogue in Part 2. The later numbers in the catalogue, from 39 are not marked on the map.

[2] In the Slavonic area, west of the Vistula, the treenailed boat reigned supreme in the Viking Age. The two finds from Frombork and Bagart, east of the Vistula (shown by crosses in circles) in present day Poland conform in this respect to Scandinavian usage. In the central Swedish area, the little known find of no less than 3 treenailed boats in Södertalje in 1799 and the (probably) treenailed boat of Bulverket on the island of Gotland should be added to the grave finds of Tuna and Karrböle (Aland Isles). In northern Norway there is a counterpart to the boat grave finds of Sand and Kjerringøy in the part-treenailed Barset boat. The Vellinge (Scania) and Barkarby (Uppland) boat grave finds are earlier and may be of no relevance in this connection (courtesy of Ole Crumlin-Pedersen).

 

References

Aleskovskij, M. Ch., 1969, Ladja v iz Novgoroda (Boat finds in Novgorod). Sovjetskaja Archeolugija. Moscow.

Andersen, H., 1951, Det femte store mosefund. Vabenfundet i Illerup Adal. Kuml. Arbog for Jysk Arkaeologisk Selskab: 16 (ill, Denmark nos 10. 17). Arhus.

Arbman, H., 1940, Der Arby-Fund. Das Arbyboot-: 77-85 (Sweden No. 22 Valkijarvi: 82ff figs 42. 43). Acta Archaeologies. XI. Copenhagen.

Arwidsson, G., 1942, Valsgdrde 6. Die Birkenrindenmatten (The birch bark mats): 104-9 (p. 104 sewing technique fig. (Abb) 76. (Boat-grave finds from the Vendel Period 500-650 AD in Sweden).

Basch, L., 1981, Carthage and Rome: tenons and mortises. The Mariner's Mirror 67.3: 245-50. London.

Berg, G., 1935, Sledges and wheeled vehicles. Ethnological studies from the view-point of Sweden, Nordiska Museets Handlingar No. 4: 22-3. Stockholm.

Berg, G., 1979, review ofCederlund 1978. Rig: 75-6. Stockholm.

Bergens Museums Arbok, 1903 (Shetelig, H) No. 7: 8f (Norway No. 5—Halsney) 1953 No. 4: 56-7 (Norway No. 12-Valderey). Bergen.

Booth, B., 1984, A handlist of maritime radiocarbon dates IJNA 13: 189-204.

Bottnisk Kontakt I, 1982, Maritimhistorisk konferens (Conference of Maritime History) Skrifter fran Ornskoldsvlks museum I. Ed. by C. Westerdahl. Ornskoldsvik. English summary.

Bottnisk Kontakt II, 1984, Maritimhistorisk konferens (Conference of Maritime History) held in Mariehamn, Aland in February 1984, prepared for publication in September, 1984.

Broadbent, N., 1982, Batbyggare vid Kagealv (Stone Age boat-builders at the Kage river of Northern Vasterbotten, Sweden), Westerdahl, C ed., Bottnisk Kontakt I: 38. Ornskoldsvik.

Brogger, A. W., Falk, Hj. & Shetelig, H., 1917, Oseberffunnel hind 1: 355, 359-62 (Norway No. 5-Halsney). Kristiania (Oslo).

Brogger, A. W. & Shetelig, H., 1951, The Viking ships. Their ancestry and evolution: 33f (Norway No. 12) photo p. 25 of the 1971 edition. Oslo.

Brendsted, J., 1957, Danmarks oldtid 1: 218-9 (Neolithic log boats) Copenhagen.

Brusic, Z., 1968, Istrazivanje anticke luke kod Nina. Diadora No. 4: 203-9 (On the sewn wrecks of Nin, Croatia, Yugoslavia). Zagreb.

Boe, J., 1942, Fra ledens fortid. Viking: 175-93 (On the sea route near the Valderey boat Norway No. 12). Oslo. Calonius, I., 1929, Handelsvagarna fran Vita havet till Bottniska viken (Trade routes from the White Sea to the Bothnian bay) Buclkavlen 1929/2: 44-51.Abo Turku.

Carlheim-Gyllenskold, V., 1900, Pa atlionde breddgraden: 188-90 (On sewn Russian ships at Spitsbergen/Svalbard). Stockholm.

Casson, L., 1963, Sewn boats (Virgil Aen VI 413-4) Classical Review: 257-9. London.

Casson, L., 1971, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton, New Jersery (particularly: 9f, 201f on sewn boats).

Cederlund, C. 0., 1977, Recording the remains of a sewn boat found at Skeppargatan 4 in Stockholm, in McGrail, S. ed. Sources and Techniques in Boat Archaeology. Symposium 1976. BAR Supplementary Series 29. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, Archaeological Series No 1: 191-203 with a discussion. London.

Cederlund, C. 0., 1978, Ett fartyg byggt med syteknik. En studie i marinarkeologisk dokumentation. Statens historiska musem (National Maritime Museum) rapport No 7. Stockholm. The 4. Skeppargatan. boat. Sweden No 42.

Chittick, N., 1980, Sewn boats in the Western Indian Ocean and a survival in Somalia. IJNA 9:297.

Christensen, A. E., 1966, Fra vikingskip til motorsnekke (On Norwegian boat history). Oslo.

Christensen, A. E., 1975, Barsetboot. Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, vol 2: 74-5 Berlin, New York.

Christensen, A. E., 1977, En nordrussisk bat i Tromso museum. Ollar 94—95 Tromso. (On the Archangelsk boat at the museum of Tromso).

Christensen, A. E., 1979, see Faereyvik, B. & Faeroyvik. 0.. 1979. Christensen, A. E., 1984, Sewn boats in Scandinavia, in Sean McGrail Aspects of Maritime Archaeology and Ethnography, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.

Credland, A. G., 1982, Sewn Boats of Lapland and Muscovy. Mariner's Mirror 3/82: 315-6. London.

Credland, A. G., 1984, Sewn Boats of Lapland. Mariner's Mirror 1/84: 81. London.

Crumlin-Pederscn, 0., 1969, Das Haithabuschiff. Berichle fiber die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu-Bericht 3. Neumiinster (on the Viking ship find in Haithabu, N Germany, with comments on Slavonic boat-building in the area).

Crumlin-Pedersen, 0., 1972, Skin or Wood? Ships and shipyards, sailors and fishermen: an introduction to maritime ethnology. (Hasslof, 0. et al eds).

Crumlin-Pedersen, 0., 1984, The Boats. Slusegard III. Copenhagen (in prep).

Drake, S., 1918, Vasterbottenslapparna under forra halften av 1800-talet. Etnografiska studier. Diss. Stockholm. New ed. 1979—Umea: 73- 77 (196-200) concerning South Saami life in the first part of the 19th century.

Dreijer, M., 1969, Arkeologiskt nytt fran Aland 1968. Alandsk odiing. Mariehamn: 160f(Karrbole, Finland No 8).

Dreijer, M., 1979, Det alandska folkets historia I. Fran stenaldern till Gustav Vasa (as above: 65, 107). Mariehamn.

von Diiben, G., 1873, Om Lappland och lapparne, fdretrddesvis de srenske. Ethnografiska studier. Stockholm. New edition 1977, Stockholm, pp. 92-7. (General work on the Saamis.)

Ehrenmalm, A., 1743, Resa genom Vesternorrland til Asehle lappmark: 96-9 (on sewn boats wielded by Saami rowers in rapids). Stockholm (German translation together with Hogstrom 1748, Copenhagen).

Ekman, C., 1954, Melbodaskeppet. Vnda marts 1953-54: 18. 40 (footnotes-on sewn boat terminology). Gothcnburg.

Ellmers, D., 1972, Fruhmittelalterliche Handelsschiffahrt in Mittel- und Nordeuropa. Offa-hucher, vol. 28. Schriften dcs Deutschen Schiffahrtsmuseum No 3, Neumiinster and Bremerhaven. New edition planned for 1984.

Engelhardt, C., 1865, Nydam Mosefund 1859-63. Sonderjyske off Fynske Mosefund bind II. New ed. 1970: 12 pi IV (Nydam-Denmark No. 3). Copenhagen.

Engelhardt, C., 1869, Kragehul- og Vimosefundene. Sonderjyske og Fynske mosefund bind III: 25, pi. 15 (Denmark No. 8) new edition 1970. Copenhagen.

Eskerod, A., 1956, Early Nordic Arctic Boats. Arctica. Studia ethnographica Upsaliensia XI. Uppsala. Faerayvik, B. & Fett, P., 1943, Fjortoftbatane (II). Bergens Museums Arbok Historisk-antikvarisk rekke No 3 (Norway No 3). Bergen.

Faeroyvik, B., 1934, Halsnoy-baaten. Norrena Bragarskrd 8th Ann. Vols 8-10, Dec. 1934: 113-8 (Norway No. 5). Bjorgvin (Bergen).

Faereyvik, B., 1935, Baatbyggjikunsti ved Ishavs-strendene (Boat-building at the coasts of the Arctic Ocean). Norrena Bragarskrd. Sept/Nov 1935. Bjorgvin/Bergen (On the Russian shnjaka ofSkolt Lapp or Carelian usage, as being of Norwegian origins).

Faerayvik, B. & Faeroyvik, 0., 1979, Inshore Craft of Norway (Christensen, A. E. ed.): 114f (Saami boats). Oslo.

Fenwick, V. (ed.), 1978, The Graveney Boat. National Maritime Museum Greenwich Archaeological Series No 3/BAR British Series 53. London/Oxford (Treenails pp. 221ff).

Fjellstrom, P., 1980, OlofRudbeck d y:s Lapplandsresa ar 1695. Etnologiska kommentarer till en 300-arig handskrift. Vitterhetsnojen. Lasning for humanister och andra. Till Magnus von Platen den 1 maj 1980. Umea (On a Lapplan journey of OlofRudbeck Jr-encountering sewn boats in the Tome river) pp. 90-1.

Forssell, H., 1981, A Boat Find at Mekrijarvi. A Preliminary Report. The Maritime Museum of Finland. Annual Report 1980 pp. 2-9. Helsinki (Finland No. 15).

Forssell, H. 1982, Mekrijarvibaten: Boltnisk kontakt / (Westerdahl, C., ed.). Ornskoldsvik: 39-44 (as above).

Forssell, H., 1983, Fynd av sydda batar i Finland Skargardsmuseet i Perna, skrifter. No 1. Helsingfors.

Forssell. H.. 1984, Mekrijarvifyndet och handelsvagen Ladoga-Bottenviken (Mekrijarvi-no-15- and the trading route from Lake Ladoga to the Bay of Bothnia) Bottnisk Kontakt II. Marihamn (in preparation).

Gjessing. G., 1941, Batfunnene fra Barset og 0ksnes. Tromso museums arshefter, kulturhistorisk avd No 8 vol 58 (1935) Tromse (Norway Nos 2, 13).

a Goes, D., 1540, Deploratio Lappianae genlis el Lapponiae descrlplio (Swed. transl. Lappska folkets nodi Lapplands beskrivmng) Stockholm, 1915: 94-5.

Graan, 0., 1672 (1899), Relation om lapparne. Svenska Landsmal och Svenskt Folkliv XVII: 2 s 19f. Uppsala. Granlund, J., 1940, Trakarl i svepteknik. Nordiska Museets Handlingar No. 12. Stockholm (On sewing in wooden vessels/containers).

Granlund, J., 1947, Sjofart, skeppoch batar hos Olaus Magnus. Sjdhistorisk arsbok Stockholm: 14 9 (On sewn boats with Olaus Magnus 1539, 1555).

Green, C., 1963 (1968), Sutton Hoo. The Excavation of a Royal Ship Burial.: 60ff (Ashby Dell). London.

Greenhill, B., 1971, Boats and Boatmen of Pakistan, London.

Greenhill, B., 1976, Archaeology of the Boat. London.

Hale, J. R., 1980, Plank-built in the Bronze Age. Antiquity LIV: 118-127. Cambridge.

Hallstrom, G., 1910, Batar och batbyggnad i ryska lappmarken. Fataburen 1909: 85-100. Stockholm (The only

existing documentation of the building ofa sewn boat- in Notosersk, Nuotjaur, peninsula of Kola, in 1909).

Hammarstedt, N. E., 1909, En lappsk bat. Fataburen 1908: 149-55 (Sweden No 28a). Stockholm.

Hansen. E. H., 1962, Baden der var syet sammen. Skulk No. 4: p 3-6. Hejberg (On the Slusegard boats, Denmark No.2, which Hansen erroneously treats as having been sewn all over- ref. to Crumlin-Pedersen, 1984).

Hansen, K. & Skamby, M., 1981. Barkhade. Vikingeskibshallen i Roskilde: 3f. Roskilde (Sweden No. 40).

Hasslof, 0., Henningsen, H. & Christensen, A. E. (eds), 1972, Ships and shipyards, sailors and fishermen; an

introduction to maritime ethnology. Copenhagen.

Hasslof, 0., 1972, Huvudlinjer i skeppsbyggnadskonstens teknologi. In: Hasslof el at. Copenhagen. Also in Norveg, Tidsskrifl for folkelivsgransking! Journal of Norwegian Ethnology 14, Oslo-Bergen-Trondheim, 1970.

Hildebrand, H., 1879, Sveriges medeltid I. Stockholm.: 1013 (On the medieval 'tagbaenda' boat, mentioned in a Swedish regional law).

Hirsjarvi, A., 1937, Akeellista veneenrakennustekniikka (Primitive boat-building technique). Suomen museo XLIX. Helsinki. Summary in German: 90-4.

Holmback, A. & Wessen, E. (eds), 1979, Svenska landskapslagar. Femte serien: Aldre vdstgotalagen pp. 183, 189 (after Schlyter, 1837 cf. Hildebrand, 1879). 2nd ed. Stockholm (On the medieval 'tagbaenda' boat mentioned in a Swedish medieval law, of which this is the latest edition).

Hourani, G. F., 1963, Arab Seafaring. Beirut: 91f(sewn boats in the Indian Ocean).

Humbla, P., 1950, Om Bjorkebaten Iran Hille socken. Fran Gastrikland 1949. Gavle. pp. 5^11, fig. 6 p. 11 (repair) (Sweden No. 39).

Humbla, Ph. & v. Post, L., 1937. Galtabacksbaten och tidigt batbyggeri i Norden. Goleborgs Kg! Vetenskaps- och Vitterhetssamhalle Handlingar 5e foljden Ser A. Vol. 6, No 1.: 5-77. Gothenburg.

Hognas, P. 0., 1983, Alandska storbatar. Meddelandenfran Marinarkeologiska Sallskapet 2/83. Stockholm (On boat building in the Aland islands, the use of treenails).

Hogstrom, P., 1746, Beskrifning ofwer de til Sweries Krona lydande Lapmarker. Stockholm. New ed. 1980, Umea: 111-114. German translation in 1748, together with Ehrenmalm 1743 in the same year (Copenhagen).

Itkonen, T., 1926, Suomen kansanomaiset veneet (Finnish vernacular boats). Suomen museo XXXIII. Helsinki. Summary in German.

Itkonen, T., 1934, Vanhaa Hauhoa. Vesikulkuneuvot. Kansatieteellinen arkisto I. Vammala (Finland No. 3, Hauho).

Itkonen, T., 1939, Kolttalappalaisten veneet (Skolt Saami boats). Suomen Museo XLVI. Helsinki. Summary in German.

Itkonen, T., 1942, Suomen ruuhet (Finnish log boats). Kansatietellinen arkisto V 1941. Vammala: 1-172. Summary in German.

Itkonen, T., 1957, Bat. Finland. Kulturhisloriskt lexikonfor nordisk medeltid. II: (column) 473. Maimo, etc.

Jansson, S., 1979, Stockbatar: utveckling och sagner. Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska Sallskapet 4/79 5f. Stockholm (First mention of Sweden No. 28b).

Johansen, 0. S., 1976, Tidlig nordnorsk bathistorie. Oltar 86. pp. 34—35 (Norway No. 9 Sand in Tjeldeya). Tromse.

Johnstone, P. and McGrail, S., 1980, The Sea-craft of Prehistory (An experimental skin boat: 108f, cf. Marstrander 1976). London.

Kahl, H. (et a!., eds), 1971, Hjortspringboten som kulluraktivilet. Roskilde (On building a replica of the Hjortspring boat. Denmark No. 1).

Kalm, P. 1753-69 (1904-29), Resa till Norra Amerika I-III (trans. to several foreign languages, including English—Travels in North America. On birch and elm bark canoes) 7f, 1971-4. Last edition Helsingfors (Helsinki).

Korhonen, 0., 1982a, Samisk-finska battermer och ortnamnselement och deras slaviska bakgrund. Skrifter utgivna av DAUM Ser A Dialekter No 3: 72-81. Umea. Diss. Uppsala.

Korhonen, 0., 19826, Hap- vad ar det for bat? Westerdahl C (ed.) Bottnisk Konlakt I: 27-36. Ornskoldsvik.

Larsen, A., 1934, Sjosamene som batbyggere i gamie dager. Haloygminne: 257-8. Harstad (On Sea Saamis as boatbuilders in former days).

Levin. M. G. & Potapov, L. P., 1961, Istoriko-etnograficeskij atlas Sibiri. Akademija ja Nauk SSSR. Moskva-Leningrad.

Lindquist, S., 1924, Baten fran Fiholm, Vastmanland. Fornvdnnen: 224-5 with ill. Stockholm (Sweden No. 41).

Lindqvist, C., 1983, Arktiska hallristningsbatar. Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska Sdllskapet 1/83 Stockholm.

Lomenie de Brienne, L.-H., 1654 (1917), In Bonnefon. P. (ed.): Memoires cle Louis -Henri de Lomenie, Comte de Brienne ciit lejeune Brienne. Tome 2e. Societe de 1'Histoire de France: 317. Paris (on bark sledges in the form of a boat).

Lorentzson, M., 1984, Naverkistor i Nodinge, Vdstergotlandsfornminnesforenings tidskrift 1983-84: 236-8. Skara (On a recent find of sewn bark coffins).

Lukkarinen, J, 1917, Eras muinainen kulkutie Laatokan ja Oulunsuun valilla (Something on the ancient route between lake Ladoga and the estuary of the Oulu river, the Bothnian Bay). Suomen museo XXIV. Helsinki.

Lundius, N., 1671 (1905), Descriptio Lapponiae. Svenska Landsmdl och Svenskt Folkliv XVII: 5. Uppsala.

Loken, T., 1976, Molen -et arkeologisk dateringsproblem og en historisk identifikasjonsmulighet. Universitetet Oldsaksamling Arbok 1975-76: 73^t. Oslo (On Sweden No. 39-Bjorke).

McGrail, S., 1981, The Brigg Raft and her Prehistoric Environment. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, Archaeological Series No. 6, BAR British Series 89. London.

Magnus, B., 1981, Halsneybatens tekstiler. Arkeo. Bergen.

Magnus, 0., 1555 (1976), Hisloria de gentibus septentrionalibus. Historic! om de nordiska folken lasted, of the Swedish translation, chapters 4:10, 2:9 Venice/Stockholm.

Malm, A. V., 1851, En vinter och tvenne somrar 1841-42: 50. Gothenburg (Note on a small boatyard at the village of Boris Gleb on the Russian side of the Norwegian border, where sewn boats were made).

Manker, E., 1947, De svenskafjallapparna. Stockholm: 464. 484, 499 on finds of sewn boats—as below).

Manker, E., 1950, Die lappische Zaubcrtrommel. II. Die Trommel als Urkunde geistigen Lebens. Ada lapponica VI. Stockholm [Boat figures on shaman drums p. 56 (ill) 57].

Manker, E., 1953, The Nomadism of the Swedish Moutain Lapps. The Siidas and their migratory routes in 1945. Nordiska museet: Ada Lapponica VII: 129 (Sweden No. 23, St. Sjofallet): 173 (No. 37. Hangajaure) 205 (No. 7 Lilla Arksjon). Stockholm.

Manker, E., 1968, Skogslapparna i Sverige (Forest Saamis in Sweden). Nordiska museet: Ada Lapponica XVIII: 101 (Sweden No. 26, Lundbacken, pp. 212-214, figs 127-28 p. 211 on the Soukolojarvi sledge or boat No. 21). Stockholm.

Manninen, I., 1917, Veneiden ompelusta pohjoisessa Aunuksen Karjalassa (Sewn Boats in Northern Carelia). Suomen museo XXIV: 59-63. Helsinki.

Manninen, 1., 1957, Fortbewegungs- und Transportmittel. Kansatieteellinen arkisto 13: 1 \-49 (particularly pp. 44-49) Helsinki.

Marstrander, S., 1963, 0slfolds jordbruksristninger. Oslo (rock carvings in the Oslo area and boat types symbolized, preferably, according to M, hide boats).

Marstrander, S., 1976, Building a hide boat. An archaeological experiment. UNA 5.1: 13-22. London. CfJohnstone, 1980.

Morcken, R., 1980, Langskip, knarr og kogge. Bergen. English summary p. 29f(on the function of the rib lashing of Viking Age ships of the Oseberg/Gokstad type).

Muller-Wille, M., 1970, Bestattung im Boot. Offa 25/26 1968-69. Neumiinsler (particularly p. 26ff).

Muller-Wille, M., 1974, Boat Graves in Northern Europe. UNA 3: 187-204. London.

Milliner, A., 1892, Ein Schiffim Laibacher Moore. Argo No. 1. pp. 1-7. Laibach (Ljubljana).

Myhre, B., 1980, Ny datering av vare eldste bater. Arkeo, Arkeologiske Meddelelser fra Historisk Museum/University of Bergen: 27-30. Bergen (Dating by 14C of Norway No. 3 Fjortoft, No. 5 Halsney and No. 12Valderay).

Naskali, E., 1980, A boat find in Raakkyla. A preliminary report on the find: 2-7. The Maritime Museum of Finland. Annual Report 1979. Helsinki (Finland No. 12 Koiralampi).

Nicolaisen, 0., 1893, Undersogelser i Nordlands amt i 1892. Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindesmaerkers Bevuring. Aarsberetningfor 1892: 1-2. Kristiania (Oslo). (Norway No. 6 Kjerringoy).

Nikkila, E., 1936, Satakuntalaisen palko-1 haaparuuhen valmistus. Satakunta X. Vammala. Nikkila, E., 1946, Satakuntalainen haapio seka sen aikaisempi levinneisyys Suomessa. Satakunta XIII. Vammala (On expanded aspen dugouts of the district of Satakunta in Finland).

Nikkila, E., 1947, En satakundensisk asping och dess eurasiska motsvarigheter. Folkliv XI: 33—16. Uppsala (The aspen dugouts of Satakunta with Eurasian counterparts).

Nordewall, E., 1832, Om jordhvarfven vid Sodertalje och om nagrajordfynd, gjorda vid kanalgrafningen derstades .Kgl Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar. Stockholm (On treenailed boat finds in Sodertalje in 1799).

Oldeberg, A., 1956, 'Tjautjerfyndet' i Vasterbotten och nagra paralleller till de dari ingaende foremalen. Fornvdnnen: 237-40. Stockholm (Sweden No. 18 Tjautjer).

Olofsson, 0., 1936, Rep av tra och naver, Norrbotten: 117-55. Lulea (On ropes made of bark and wooden fibres).

Olofsson, 0., 1965, En 'sydd' bat. Svenskfiskeritidskrift: 141-3. Sodertalje (Sweden No. 34a Giltjaur). Palmquist, E., 1674 (1898), Nagra—Observationer ofwer Rysslandh—Stockholm, point 10 p. 5 (General observations on Russia, e.g. sewn boats).

Past. E.. 1946. Lodjan—en urgammal segelfartygstyp i Eslland. Unda maris. 1945. Gothenburg (On an Estonian sailing barge type. formerly sewn. like the Russian lodja (ladja, ladka).

Paulaharju. K., 1966, Viimeiset veneloydot Pohjois-Suomessa. Kellon-Haukipulaan koliseutujulkaisu II: 47-55. Oulu (On new boat finds in Northern Finland, including Finland No. 4 Haukipudas, No. 6 Pohjois-li, No. 17 Pudasjarvi).

Pettersson, 0. P. (eds L Backman & R. Kjellstrom), 1979, Kristoffer Sjulssons minnen om Vapstenslapparna under forra halften av 1800-talet. Nordiska museet: Ada Lapponica 20: 149-50. Stockholm (c.f. Drake S: 1918/1979) (On a Southern Saami community during the first part of the 19th century).

Philipsen. P. S., 1983, En analyse of danske stammebade (Analysis of Danish log boats) unpublished thesis with a catalogue ofc. 230 boats.

Piper, G. A. 1710, Landshovdingen G. A. Pipers minnen: 41-7. Stockholm. (The memories of Swedish POW during the Great Nordic War with Russia under Peter the Great, mentioning a transport with sewn boats.) Published 1902.

Pilot. A. & Daget, J., 1948, Les barques du moyen Niger. Paris.

Polo. M., 1299 (1964), Marco Polos resor (Swedish translation by B. Thordeman): 72. Stockholm (On sewn boats in the Arabian Persian Gulf).

Pomey, P., 1981, L'Epave de Bon-Porte et les bateaux cousus de la Mediterranee. The Mariner's Mirror 67.3: 225^44. London.

Prins, A. H. J., 1975, Development in arctic boat design: efflorescence or involution? Netherlands-Swedish symposium on developments in Scandinavian arctic culture Febr 1974 University ofGroningen: 12-30. Groningen.

Rank, G., 1935, Zwei seltene Bootfunde aus Estland. Sitzungsberichi der eslnischen Gelehrten Gesellschaft 1933: 304-15 (Estonia No. 1, Hara, and No. 2. Nan a).

Rasmussen, H., 1953, Hassele-egen. Et bidrag til de danske stammebades historie. Kuml. Arbog for Jysk Arkaeologisk Selskab—catalogue of log-boats found in Denmark p. 40 (Denmark No. 9.) Arhus.

Regnard, J. E., 1731, (ed de) Les Oeuvres de AT Regnard Tome 1 Voyage de Laponie: 96-7 (1681). Paris. Swedish translation 1946, Resa i Lappland: 17 footnote: 157-9. Stockholm.

Rehn, S., 1671 (1897), En korrt Relation om lapparnas Lefwerne och Sedher sampt i manga stycken Grofwe wildfarelser. Svenska Landsmal och Svenskt Folkliv XVII. Uppsala.

Reymert, P. K., 1976, Barsetbaten—spor etter samisk-norsk kulturblanding. Ottar 86: p 29-32. Tromso.

Rosenberg, G. (with Knud Jessen and Frederik Johannessen), 1937, Hjortspringfundet. Nordiske Fortidsminder III: 1.

Copenhagen_(Denmark No. 1).

Sammlung zur Danischen Geschichte 1.4: 74 Kong Christian den Fierdes Reise (The Journey of King Christian IV of Denmark/Norway, in 1599). Copenhagen, 1773 (Observations of sewn boats outside the Kola coast).

Schenerus, J. (Scheffer, J.), 1673, Lapponia (History of Lappland). Several translations in to foreign languages in the following years. Swedish translation in 1956 by Nordiska Museet: Ada Lapponica VIII: 282-3. Stockholm.

Schlyter, D. C. J., 1837, Samiing af Sweriges Gamla Lagar. Aldre Viistgdtalagen. (The first edition of the medieval regional laws where is mentioned the 'tagbaenda' boat type (cf. Hildebrand, 1879, and Holmback/Wessen, 1979).

Severin, T., 1982, In the Wake ofSindbad. National Geographic Magazine. July: 3-37. Washington D.C. (cf Marco Polo).

Shetelig, H., 1903, in Arbok Bergens Museum No. 7: 8f, ill figs 5-12 (Norway No. 5-Halsney).

Shetelig, H., 1916, Tidlige baatgraver. Oldtiden VII. Oslo: 86-7—cfNicolaissen, 1892.

Shetelig, H., 1917, see Bregger el a!., 1917.

Shetelig, H., 1951, see Br0gger & Shetelig, 1951.

Shetelig, H. & Johannessen, F., 1929, Kvalsundfundet og andre norske myrfund avfartoier. Bergen (Catalogue of bog-found Norwegian boats: 41ff. Norway No. 5 Halsn0y: 42, No. 7 Lauvasvik: 49, No. 13 0ksnes: 49 before the excavation cfGjessing, 1941).

Sirelius, U. T., 1913, Primitive konstruktionsteile an prahistorischen schiffen (Primitive constructional parts in prehistoric ships). Finnisch-ugrische forschungen XIII. Helsinki.

Sirelius, U. T., 1919, Suomen kansanomaista kultturia (The vernacular culture of Finland) I, 425-8. Helsinki.

Slaski, K., 1979, Slawische Schiffe des westlichen Ostseeraumes (Slavonic ships in the western part of the Baltic). Offa 35, 1978; 116-127. Neumiinster.

Smolarek, P., 1963, Zabytki szkutnictwa skandynawskiego (Relics of Scandinavian shipbuilding), with summary in English. Prace Muzeum Morskiego w Gdansku Tom I ill: 37 (Ludwig: Denmark No. 1 Njortspring). Gdansk.

Sperber, H., 1912, Zur Terminologie des germanischen Shiffbaus. WSrter und Sachen. Kulturhistorische Zeitschrift fur Sprach- und Sachforschung: 78-80. Heidelberg.

Stenberger, M., 1956, Tuna in Badelunda. A grave in central Sweden with Roman vessels. Ada archaeologica XXVII: 17 (Sweden No. 43). Copenhagen.

Stenberger, M., 1964, Detforntida Sverige (Ancient Sweden): 614, Uppsala (Sweden No. 43).

Stenvik, L., 1980, Samer og nordmenn sett i lys av et uvanlig gravfunn fra Saltenomradet. Viking 43, 1979: 127-39. Oslo.

Sturlason, S. (13th century), 1951, Heimskringia 111 (ed. Bjarni Adalbjarnarson) Islenzk Fornrit XXVIII bindi. Reykjavik pp. 311-2 (On Saamis building a sewn boat for a Norwegian king, Sigurd Slembadiaekn). Norwegian translation in 1899 (G. Storm) Heimskringia II Inges saga. Chapter 6 pp. 593^4 (Norges Kongesagaer). Kristiania (Oslo).

Tauber, H., 1966, Danske Kulstof-14 dateringer af arkaeologiske prover II. Aarbeger for nordisk oldkyndighed og historic. Copenhagen (Denmark No. 5.14 C-datings of Danish archaeological objects, including boats).

Tilas, D., 1745 (1966), Curriculum vitae. Ed. Holger Wichman. Stockholm: 18 Iff (Mentioned Sweden No. 3S Tuggen, Ume river).

Tornaeus, J., 1671 (1900), Berattelse om Lapmarckema och deras Tillstand. Svenska Landsmal och Svenskt Folkliv XVII. 3, Uppsala 1900: 5 Iff.

Troels-Smith, J. N., 1946, Stammebaade fra Aamosen. Fra Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 1946: 15-23 (16-17, 18-20 on log boats). Copenhagen.

Valonen, N., 1952, Geflechte und andere Arbeiten aus Birkenrindenstreifen unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung finnischer Tradition. KansatieteUinen arkisto IX. Vammala. (On works of birch bark, particularly in Finland).

Varenius, B., 1979, Bulverketbaten- ett gammull fynd i ny belysning. Stalens sjohistoriska museum (The National Maritime Museum) rapport No. 11. Stockholm (p. 41 on treenails).

Vilkuna, K., 1967, Studien liber alte finnische Gemeinschaftsformen. Finnisch-ugrische Forschungen 36: 1-180. 111. p. 85.(routes to the White Sea, after Calonius 1929). Helsinki.

Vilkuna, K., 1975, Der Hintergrund des nordischen Kirchbootswesens. Ethnologia Scandinavica, Journal of Scandinavian Ethnology. Lund (On the church boat system of Scandinavia).

Vorren, 0., 1958, Sydde bater (Sewn boats). Ottar 18: 20-22. Tromso.

Vrsalovic, D., 1974, Istrazivanja i zastila podmorskih arheoloskih spomenika u SR Hrvatskoj. English summary, Zagreb (On the sewn Nin wrecks ofCroatia-cfBrusic 1968, pp. 54-5, 240).

Wahlberg, E., 1956, Ackjefyndet Iran Soukolojarvi. \orrbollen: 80-92. Lulea (On the find of the ackja presumably originally a boat. Sweden No. 21).

Wenner, C. G., 1938, Arsvarvighet i Viskans subrecenta delta. Geologiska Foreningens Fijrhandlingar 60.3: 521 (Sweden No. 40 the bark boat ofByslatt). English summary. Stockholm.

Wessel, A. B., 1902, Fra var graendse mod Russland: 37-8 Kristiania (Oslo) (On a Skolt Saami woman building sewn boats ill.).

Westerdahl, C., 1975-76, Preliminary catalogue of registered objects, Manuscript at Statens sjohistoriska museum, The National Maritime Museum, Stockholm (Sweden Nos 20a, 20b).

Westerdahl, C., 1978, Marinarkeologi. Nagot om sydda batar. Alimo, Westerdahl, Akerlund (eds) Spetshergen— land i norr: 29-32. Stockholm. (On Russian sewn boats in Norwegian Svalbard). Reprinted with alterations in Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska Sdllskapet 1984. No. 1, Stockholm.

Westerdahl, C., 1979, Ar verkligen Byslattfyndet en barkkanot? Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska Sdllskapet 3.79: 30 1. Stockholm (Sweden No. 40).

Westerdahl, C., 1980, Nagot om sydda batar. Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska Sdllskapet 4.80: 20-31. Stockholm (On sewn boats in the North).

Westerdahl, C., 1981, Fullskaledokumentation. Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska Sdllskapet 4.82: 21-6. Stockholm (On the Skeppargatan boat, Sweden No. 42).

Westerdahl, C., 1982a (ed.), Bottnisk Kontakt I. Maritimhistorisk konferens (Conference on maritime history) Febr 1982. Skrifterfran Ornskoldsviks museum 1, Ornskoldsvik.

Westerdahl, C., 19826, Om barkkanoter i Sverige. Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska Sdllskapet 1.82: 24-5 (On birch bark boats in Sweden, Sweden Nos 2b, 8c, 28b). Stockholm.

Westerdahl, C., 1982c, Maritim arkeologi i Norrbotten. Nagra uppgifter kring en inventering 1975-77. Norrbotten 1980-81.: 51-82 sewn boats: 63f (Sweden Nos 19, 20a. 20b). Lulea.

Westerdahl, C., 1982rf, Den tredje naverbaten lokaliserad. Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska Sdllskapet 4/82 (Sweden No Ic: 43). Stockholm.

Westerdahl, C. 1983a, Bjorkebaten ater aktuell. Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska Sdllskapet 2/83: 35-7. Stockholm (A migration age dating proposed for the Bjorke boat, Sweden No. 39).

Westerdahl, C., 1983b, Kulturhistoria och grottor. Srenska Grottor No. 5. Sveriges Speleolog-Forbund. Stockholm: 65 (On a tale about skin boats).

Westerdahl, C., 1984, see 1978—reprint.

Wright, E. V., 1976, The North Ferriby Boats. National Maritime Museum Greenwich. Maritime Monographs and Reports 23. London.

Zeienin, D., 1927, Russische (Ostslawische) Volkskunde. Grundriss der slawischen Philologie und Kulturgeschichte. Berlin und Leipzig.

Ziegler, J., 1532 (1878), Schondia. Originally Strasburg. Swedish translation, in: Ett geografiskt arbete ofver Skandinavien fran ar 1532. Svenska Sdllskapet for antropologi och geografi Geografiska sektionens tidskrift 1-78, Voll: 13f. Stockholm.

Agren, P. U., 1971, Sydda batar och stockbatar. Vdsterbotten No 1,: 57-62. Umea.

Agren, P. U., 1981, new edition of 1971 ref. in Meddelanden fran Marinarkeologiska sallskapet 4/4: 5-12. Stockholm 1981.

Akerlund, H., 1963, Nydamskeppen. En studie i tidig skandinavisk skeppsbyggnadskonst. English summary.

Gothenburg.: 100 (Denmark No. 3).

 

Archives

DAUM—Dialekt- ortnamnsarkivet i Umeå.

ULMA—Dialekt- och folkmmnesarkivet i Uppsala (Uppsala landsmålsarkiv).

 

 

 Appendix

 

Datings

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bodal I

Denmark No. 5

14C, uncalibrated

2740+100BC

Øgärde III

Denmark No. 4

14C, uncalibrated

2640±120BC

Amose

Denmark No. 4

geology, artifacts

3rd millennium BC

Hjortspring

Denmark No. 1

artifacts

c300BC

Valderøy

Norway No. 12

14C, calibrated

245 AD ± 105

Björke

Sweden No. 39

geol. typology 14C

320 ±70 AD

Halsnøy

Norway No. 5

14C calibrated

335 AD ±65

Slusegård

Denmark No. 2

artifacts

3rd—4th centuries AD

Nydam (pine ship)

Denmark No. 3

artifacts

c 400 AD

Skagen

Norway No. 11

old type runes

3rd 8th centuries AD

Sand

Norway No. 9

artifacts

7th-8th centuries AD

Bårset

Norway No. 2

typology

8th century

Fjørtoft

Norway No. 3

14C, calibrated

860 AD ±90

Øksnes

Norway No. 13

artifacts

9th-10th centuries

Kjerringøy

Norway No. 6

artifacts

9th-10th centuries

Laivajärvi

Finland No. 14b

14C

910AD ±90

Karrböle

Finland No. 8

context

9th-llth centuries

Fiholm

Sweden No. 41

14C

965 AD 95

Koiralampi

Finland No. 12

14C

1130AD±130

Koiralampi

Finland No. 12

14C

1170AD±100

Keuruu

Finland No. 9

14C

1220 AD+130

Keuruu

Finland No. 9

14C

1280 AD± 120

Soukolojarvi

Sweden No. 21

14C(no details)

13th century AD

Mekrijärvi

Finland No. 15

14C

1610AD±100

V. Kikkejaur

Sweden No. 27b

14C

1620 AD ±45

Valtimo

Finland No. 22

14C

1640 AD+120

Stockholm

Sweden No. 42

14C

context—ca 1700 AD younger than 250 yrs

Sotkamo

Finland No. 21

14C

1740 AD ±80

Siilinjärvi

Finland No. 20

14C

1760 AD+100

Mekrijärvi

Finland No. 15

14C

1810AD ±90

Inari

Finland No.7

14C

1860 AD± 110

Svalbard (Spitzbergen) from c

1700-1850

Pasvik

Norway No. 8

ca 1870

Archangelsk

Soviet Union (in Tromsø, Norway)

ca1870

Kola shnjaka

Soviet Union (in Oslo)

1905

Nuotjaur

Soviet Union (in Stockholm)

1909 (Hallström)

Seesjärvi

Soviet Union (in Helsinki)

ca l910 (Itkonen)

 

Literary statements on sewn boats in use or being built

Snorri Sturlason on king Sigurd Slembadiaekn

1138/39 (ca 1220)

Saami

Swedish regional (the older Västgöta) law

ca 1225

Sweden

Jacobus Ziegler

1532

Saami

Olaus Magnus Carta marina

1539

Finland

Damianus a Goes

1540

Saami

Olaus Magnus Historia de gentibus ...

1555

Sweden-Finland

King Christian IV:s journey to the North

1599

Skolt Saami

Graan, Lundius, Rehn, Tornaeus

1671-1672

Saami

Schefferus Lapponia

1673

Saami

Palmquist Några Observationer ofwer Russlandh ...

1674

Russia

Regnard

1681

Sweden †

Rudbeck

1695

Saami

Piper

1710

Russia

Linnaeus

1732

Saami

Ehrenmalm

1743

Saami

Tilas

1745

Saami

Högström

1745

Saami

Kristoffer Sjulsson (Pettersson, 1979)

ca 1850

Saami

Malm

1851

Skolt saami

Wessel

1902

Skolt saami

Hallström

1909

Skolt saami

Itkonen

1912 (1939)

Skolt saami

Manninen

1917

Skolt saami

Olofsson (on a still usable boat)

1935

Saami

 

the boat could be Swedish or Finnish.